SWIMMING IS THE IDEAL SPORT FOR EVERYONE BECAUSE OF ITS SAFETY AND MEDICAL BENEFITS


My thesis from all the way back in 4th Year High School

 

I. The Problem

A. Introduction

Swimming is the ideal sport for everyone because it is fun, it keeps one in shape, and most of all it is the “safest” sport. Safe because it is a non-contact and a non-impact sport and therefore there should be no injuries involved. Having no injuries, a swimmer would never be sidelined for a period of time long enough to get him out of shape. A swimmer gets to do his everyday work properly and keep him fit unlike other sports that have high risks of putting one on a wheel chair or force him to have to be aided by crutches or put his arm in a cast. When under these circumstances, the person’s work will be affected since he cannot move properly. He can still get back to work eventually but his injury will greatly affect his efficiency. Students’ studies will also be affected if they get injured since they will not be able to concentrate because of the injury and they cannot write properly, etc.

Swimming is also not prone to overuse injuries that are common in high-impact and weight-bearing sports such as running, gymnastics and the like; as well as common injuries in other non-contact sports like torn muscles and ligaments, in the case or weight lifting, rowing, volleyball, tennis, etc.

Swimming is also good for a few illnesses like asthma; back related issues, cerebral palsy. To some extent it can even cure the illness completely – particularly asthma. There have been many cases wherein a patient was cured of asthma because of swimming. In fact, doctors recommend asthmatic patients to take up the sport of swimming, or at least water-related activities because it strengthens the lungs.

B. Statement of the Problem

In this study, the author seeks to present evidence that swimming is the ideal sport for everyone. Many people look for a sport to get fit, to get the body they want, but they often make the mistake of jumping into a sport, over doing themselves, and eventually hurting themselves. Also, there are quite a number of people who are diagnosed with illnesses which swimming can help.

C. Significance of the Study

Today, everyone is very concerned about his or her health as well as physical appearance. It is common knowledge that swimmers have the most ideal body shape because swimming is the only sport that uses all of the muscles in the body at the same time, all in one exercise. Swimmers need not do several exercises to work on their abs, arms, and legs. Swimming is also an aerobic sport so fat burning is not a problem.

Swimming also has its medical purposes and that is the focus of this paper—to show how important swimming is because of its medical benefits, how it helps people with certain illnesses. The greatest swimmer (and Olympian) in history was diagnosed with ADHD when he was a young boy. Eric Buhain, former PSC Chairman and SEA Games and Asian Games medalist had asthma before he started swimming. Susie Maroney, now 35, won the Manhattan Island Swim Race in 1991, 1992, and 1994. She holds the world record for the fastest return crossing of the English Channel, which she did when she was only 16 years old. She did these among many other achievements.

Swimming can help many people, whether ill or not. Swimming can be a cure, or merely an exercise. More proofs of this and how swimming helps certain illnesses will be discussed more extensively later on in the paper.

D. Hypothesis

Swimming is the ideal sport for all because everyone can learn to swim; and it is a great sport because it is balanced, and it can keep you fit without really any risk of injury.

E. Scope and Limitation

This paper will cover swimming as the ideal sport for all time. It will be done mostly thru a qualitative type of research. It focuses on helping people with asthma, back pains, cerebral palsy, ADHD, breast cancer, and strengthening the back of pregnant women.

F. Definition of Terms

ADHD- Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

Asthma- a respiratory condition marked by spasms in the bronchi of the lungs causing difficulty in breathing. It usually results from an allergic reaction or other forms of hypersensitivity.

Back problems- illnesses that involve the back and the spinal column like scoliosis, slip disc etc.

Breast Cancer- a malignant (cancerous) growth that begins in the tissues of the breast.

Cerebral palsy- a condition marked by impaired muscle coordination and/or other disabilities typically caused by damage to the brain before or at birth.

Non-contact sport- does not involve coming in contact with the opponent, which may result in injury.

Pregnancy- when a women carries a fetus in her womb.

Weight bearing and other injury-prone sports- sports activities that are non-contact but injury prone, i.e., tennis, running, gymnastics, soccer, baseball, basketball, etc.

II. Review of Related Literature and Studies

The materials that were used for this paper came mostly from Internet websites. The content of these sites were very helpful. Most of them came from doctors whom I asked helped from. The lone article used in the study of the problem also came from a website.

A) http://www.healthcorral.com/backpain/how_swimming_helps_in_curing_back_pain.php

This website helped in the part of the study regarding back pains. There was only one article in the website with related topics along with it. The article and the website containing it were very useful, they really helped in explaining how swimming helps people with back problems.

B) http://www.mydr.com.au/asthma/asthma-can-swimming-help

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amy_Van_Dyken

http://www.spiritus-temporis.com/debbie-meyer/

http://www.sfgate.com/sports/olympics96/profiles/grote.html

http://www.usatoday.com/community/chat/0913hogshead.htm

The first website was the common denominator among responses from consulted doctors. All the doctors we consulted were sure to give this site as it thoroughly explained everything about how swimming really helps asthma. Because it was highly recommended by the doctors, it gave us an assurance of the credibility of the content of the website.

The other four websites were the source of information on great swimmers who had asthma. They basically talk about how these swimmers started and why, and a list of their achievements.

C) http://www.mamashealth.com/exercise/swimben.asp

This site contains information about how swimming helps pregnant women and cancer patients. This site offers further research to confirm that swimming indeed helps breast cancer patients and pregnant women.

D) “Effect of intensive swimming training on lung volumes, airway resistances and on the maximal expiratory flow-volume relationship in prepubertal girls” by Daniel Courteix, Philippe Ober, Anne-Marie Lecoq, Patrick Guenon, Gunter Koch

This article talks about how swimming helps pre-pubertal girls. The point of the article is very clear. It even uses figures and any accurate figure shown will always better help readers to understand the point being made.

E) http://www.cerebralpalsysource.com/News_and_Articles/champion-swimmer/index.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Susie_Maroney

http://www.cerebralpalsysource.com/Treatment_and_Therapy/swimming/index.html

These three websites were the ones consulted for the part of the study on cerebral palsy. Wikipedia is not always a trusted site but the only part in the research that came from wikipedia were the achievements of Susie Maroney, a cerebral palsy champion swimmer. The other websites show how swimming helps cerebral palsy.

F) http://helpingpsychology.com/swimming-and-those-with-adhd

This website contains an article on how ADHD patients are helped greatly by swimming, using Michael Phelps as an example. It talks about how sports is good for those with ADHD because it uses up their excess energy; but swimming is still the best because swimmers only have focus on one thing while other sports, especially team sports require multi tasks at the same time and this could discourage those with ADHD since they have a really short attention span.

III. Methodology

The research design to be used in this paper is mostly qualitative but at some points quantitative means are used. The qualitative form of research suits this topic better than quantitative because not many people know a lot about the sport, let alone its medical purposes.

Extensive research is to be used in solving the problem stated before. Tools such as the Internet and several articles, and a couple of books recommended by some consulted doctors are used to back up the hypothesis. Interviews with doctors are also included here.

In our Statement of the Problem it was mentioned that the paper would discuss swimming and how it can help a person medically. A well-known illness commonly associated with swimming as a cure, or at least a form of therapy, is asthma. Swimming can lessen the asthma attacks of a person and that is why this subject will be a significant part of this paper.

The research also focuses on the well roundedness of the sport, in the sense that it is for all people and all the muscle groups in the body are used in one exercise. Cardio, core, upper body, and lower body, all the muscle groups in all areas are used and therefore the sport is balanced.

This paper will also show how swimming as a sport is good for people of all ages because it will keep everyone healthy and fit with minimal risk of injury because it is a non contact sport. Because it is a non contact sport, the athlete is safe from injuries since it is only the water he is dealing with.

IV. Results/Findings

A. Summary

The problem that was earlier stated was that the author intends to present evidence that swimming is the ideal sport for everyone because it is a non-contact and not a weight-bearing sport and because of this, swimmers are not prone to injury and therefore it will not sideline them for long periods of time so they can continue their work properly while staying completely fit. It is also a sport that can cure several illnesses such as asthma, back problems, cerebral palsy, etc.

 

Asthma

 Swimming does not cure asthma per se, but it helps minimize asthma attacks because swimming strengthens the lungs and asthmatic patients have weak lungs. Asthma and swimming are both about respiratory issues. Swimming will teach you to control your breathing, to take in enough air to power you through the water. The timing of the breathing has to be mastered and this discipline of the timing of the breathing is almost the same principle as controlling the asthma.

Swimming is generally the best form of exercise for asthmatics, as exercise-induced asthma is mostly due to breathing in cold, dry air. The air in swimming pools is moist and warm, and breathing control is obviously necessary while swimming.

Swimming is a great exercise for people with asthma as you breathe in warm, moist air rather than the cold, dry air that can lead to asthma symptoms. Swimming can also help develop good breathing practices.

There are several great athletes who started swimming only because their doctors recommended it for their asthma. Two of these are Kurt Grote and Amy VanDyken. Other successful swimmer asthmatics are Debbie Meyer and Nancy Hogshead.

Kurt Grote is one of the strongest swimmers on the US team. He ranked fifth fastest in US history in the breast stroke but Kurt Grote did not start swimming until he was 15 years old and he only swam because his doctor recommended it to him for his asthma.

Kurt says that asthma is really common and a few of his teammates on the Olympic team were asthmatics. He says that “the humidity of the surface of the water is good for people with asthma. It strengthens your lungs and your heart and allows you to improve”.

Kurt had a bike accident wherein he lost 17 percent of his skin but he never missed practice. His determination, this injury, plus the asthma, never stopped Kurt from practicing. He swam 10,000 meters everyday and his hard work paid off. At the Olympic trials for the Atlanta games, Kurt won the 200-meter breaststroke and finished second in the 100-meter breaststroke event.

Like Kurt Grote, Amy VanDyken started swimming because her doctor suggested it for her asthma. Her doctor told her it would strengthen her lungs to cope with her condition and prevent future attacks.

Van Dyken began her competitive swimming career at Cherry Creek High School in Greenwood Village, Colorado, where she was state champion and state record holder in the 50-yard freestyle and 100-yard butterfly in her Junior and Senior years, and where in 1991 she captained her team to a state title. At the 1992 US Olympic Trials, she placed 4th in the 50-meter freestyle, just missing the Olympic team.

After high school, Van Dyken attended the University of Arizona for two years before transferring to Colorado State University, where she broke her first (of many more to come) United States record with a time of 21.77 seconds in the 50-yard freestyle at the NCAA championships in 1994. She also placed second in the 100-yard butterfly and the 100-yard freestyle to Olympian Jenny Thompson. In 1994 she was named the NCAA Female Swimmer of the Year. After college, she moved to the United States Olympic Training Center in Colorado Springs, Colorado, to train full-time for the 1996 Olympics.

At the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, Van Dyken became the first American female athlete in history to win 4 gold medals in a single Olympic games. Her success in swimming won her a wide variety of awards and accolades including the ESPN Awards (ESPY) Female Athlete of the Year award; Swimming World magazine’s female Swimmer of the Year award; induction into the Colorado Sports Hall of Fame; induction into the US Olympic Hall of Fame; named Associated Press Female Athlete of the Year, USOC Sports Woman of the Year, the Women’s Sports Foundation Sports Woman of the Year and USA Swimming Swimmer of the Year.

Debbie Meyer (born August 14, 1952 Annapolis, Maryland) won the 200m, 400m and 800m freestyle swimming events in the 1968 Summer Olympics in Mexico City, at 16 years old becoming the first swimmer and first female to win three individual gold medals. Her winning times were 2:10.5 for 200m, 4:31.8 for 400m and 9:24.0 for 800m, all of them new Olympic records. A sufferer from asthma, she also broke twenty world records, which landed her in the Olympic Hall of Fame, broke 24 United States records and won 19 Amateur Athletic Union championships. In 1969 she was named Associated Press Athlete of the Year. In 1972 she retired from competition. She owns the Debbie Meyer Swim School.

Nancy Hogshead, an Olympic triple gold medalist, began competitive swimming early and was ranked number one in the world at age 14. In high school and college dual meets she was undefeated. After a brief retirement, she came back to steal the show in the 1984 Olympic games. By the age of 22, Nancy had capped eight years as a world-class swimmer. She has been inducted into six Halls of Fame, including the International Swimming Hall of Fame.

Back Pains

Swimming is regarded as the best exercise for physical fitness. It really helps in curing the back pain that people usually get in the senile stages. Elimination of the back pain is not an easy task as it elongates with your age and your weight. For that reason you have to keep on exercising everyday before you go for your work. The reason behind taking this exercise into consideration for the cure of the back pain is posture. Actually the posture of keeping the head out of the water stretches the whole part of the back and such extension will make you free from pain. There are a lot of exercises that will help you to feel relaxed the whole day. You can realize the same when you start swimming and it also makes you feel fresh. Swimming comes under the stretching exercises that are prescribed by the doctors. It is also one of the recommended exercises for curing back pain. Even heated swimming pools reduce the risk of the asthma attacks. Indeed, swimming regularly can cure various health problems.

Pregnancy

Pregnant women can also benefit from swimming. Swimming can help them strengthen their abdominal and shoulder muscles. Abdominal and shoulder muscles are areas that are often taxed by carrying a baby. Water exercise can also reduce the joint stiffness, high blood pressure, and discomfort associated with pregnancy.

Breast Cancer

Swimming after breast surgery is an excellent means of exercising all the major muscle groups, and avoiding muscular atrophy often seen in post-surgical patients who remain sedentary for prolonged periods. Before beginning an exercise program, it is always good to first consult a doctor though.

Swimming is also good because it strengthens the abdomen, back and shoulders. These muscles will help post-mastectomy women carry their weight easily.

Swimming on lung volumes, airway resistances and on the maximal expiratory flow-volume relationship in pre-pubertal girls

The aim of the study was to analyze the effect of one year of intensive swimming training on lung volumes, airway resistance and on the flow-volume relationship in pre-pubertal girls. Five girls aged nine and a half years old performing vigorous swimming training for 12 hours a week were compared with a control group of 11 girls of the same age but participated in various sport activities for only two hours per week. Static lung volumes, maximal expiratory flows at 75, 50 and 25% of vital capacity, 1-s forced expiratory volume and airway resistance were measured by means of conventional body plethysmograph techniques. Prior to the training period there were no significant differences between the two groups for any of the parameters studied. Moreover, for both groups, all parameters were within the normal range for children of the corresponding age. After one year of training, vital capacity, total lung capacity, and functional residual capacity were larger in the girl swimmers than in the control group, while physical development in terms of height and weight was similar.

The results indicate that intensive swimming training in the pre-pubertal stage of females enhances static and dynamic lung volumes and improves the conductive properties of both the large and the small airways. As to the causative mechanism, it can be speculated that at pre-puberty intensive swimming training promotes isotropic lung growth by harmonizing the development of the airways and of alveolar lung spaces.

 

 

 

Cerebral Palsy

Cerebral palsy is an umbrella term encompassing a group of non-progressive, non-contagious conditions that cause the physical disability in human development.

Cerebral refers to the cerebrum, which is the affected area of the brain, and palsy refers to disorder of movement. Cerebral palsy is caused by damage to the motor control centers of the developing brain and can occur during pregnancy, during childbirth or after birth up to about age three. Further research is needed on adults with cerebral palsy as this study was focused on children.

It is a non-progressive disorder, meaning the brain damage does not worsen, but secondary orthopedic difficulties are common. For example, onset of arthritis and osteoporosis can occur much sooner in adults with cerebral palsy. In addition, motor disorders may be accompanied by “disturbances of sensation, cognition, communication, perception, and/or behavior, and/or by a seizure disorder”.

Swimming and swim therapy can be a great way of providing therapy and exercise for any person with cerebral palsy. Cerebral palsy is a group of disorders that often cause motor function malfunction. These motor problems may cause serious muscular damage due to spasticity or stiffness in the muscles. While there is no cure for cerebral palsy there are many options for therapy and treatment that may help in providing relief for some problematic symptoms.

Swimming can be one way of providing therapy for a person with cerebral palsy. Unlike other therapeutic methods, swimming can actually be safe because there is no possibility of hurting one’s self by falling down. All swim therapy should take place only under the supervision of a qualified swim therapist, however. The warmth of a heated swim area can also provide relief from muscle stiffness or pain. Water provides buoyancy as well, which alleviates the stress on the body that gravity causes. Swim exercise and movements can help in losing weight and building muscle strength. Swim therapy for cerebral palsy can also help in developing coordination as well.

Any type of physical therapy can be beneficial for the person with cerebral palsy. Therapy can decrease spasticity and teach a more varied motor function. These types of therapies aim at giving the person with cerebral palsy more independence. Sometimes in severe cases swimming is the only way a person with cerebral palsy can exercise or move independently.

Aquatic therapy in a swimming pool can provide this independence, but should only be done as part of a long-term therapeutic treatment.  Water gives the person with cerebral palsy a higher range of motion capabilities.  Being in the water can also help with blood and nervous system development.  Many swim therapies are helpful because they have little or no side effects that can harm the person with cerebral palsy.  Like all therapies, swim therapy should be closely performed with and monitored by an experienced person.

Types of swim therapy for cerebral palsy include “Ai Chi,” a type of yoga in the water.  “Aquatic PNF” is a kind of swim therapy based on a technique known as Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation.  “Aquatic Feldenkrais” is a swim therapy modeled on the famous Feldenkrais method of physical and psychological therapy.  Other swim therapy techniques include the “Bad Ragaz ring method,” “Halliwick,” “Swim Stroke,” “Task-Type,” and “Watsu.”

These types of techniques have seen improvements in people with cerebral palsy.  In providing the opportunity for persons with cerebral palsy to help themselves in developing their individualities, swim therapy should be a beneficial and essential part of their lives.

Susie Maroney, an Australian world record-holding marathon swimmer, was born with cerebral palsy, and when she was just six months old, her family enrolled her in swimming lessons to help fight the illness. She and her twin brother Sean, also born with cerebral palsy, kept their condition secret in their youth to avoid getting teased and picked on by other children.

Susie’s mother Pauline said that three months into her pregnancy with the twins, she suffered respiratory arrest from severe asthma, and doctors offered her the option of terminating the pregnancy. The twins brought the number of children in their family to five. Pauline says that when the twins were babies, Susie could not move her right side and Sean was “just floppy.”

Pauline and her husband took the children swimming as a way to strengthen the children’s muscles. As Susie noted, “she knew the water was the best place for us: people can’t see you limp.”

Susie eventually became a marathon swimmer, and she holds many swimming records, including the world record for the fastest return crossing of the English Channel, accomplished when she was 16 years old. Sean became a tri-athlete. Other accomplishments of Susie include winning the Manhattan Island Swim Race three times in the years 1991, 1992, and 1994. She is also the fastest female two-way English Channel Crossing in 1991 at age 17 in the time of 17 hours, 14 minutes. She was the first person to swim the 180-km. Florida Straits from Cuba to the United States at age 22. She swam a record 197 kilometers from Mexico to Cuba, covering the longest distance ever swum without flippers in open sea in 38h 33m. Finally, she completed the 160-km. swim from Jamaica to Cuba.

ADHD (Michael Phelps)

About 3% to 5% of all the people in the world are affected by ADHD, which causes people to be unable to focus and to forget easily. More and more adults are diagnosed with ADHD, although more children get it, and they often are still affected as adults.

Michael Phelps, acknowledged the world’s greatest swimmer of all time after winning eight gold medals at the 2008 Beijing Olympics, is afflicted with ADHD, but this does not stop him from shining as a swimmer. His total of eight gold medals in one Olympics and 14 for his career so far, are both records.

According to experts, any sport or physical activity that allows a person affected by ADHD to receive one-on-one instruction can be beneficial. That is because people afflicted with ADHD often do not do as well in team-based sports.

Experts also say activities that involve a lot of movement are good for those affected by ADHD, and swimming and walking are the most beneficial. That is because those affected by the disease do best when they are active, and do not do well when inactive. This is especially true for males. There is something about using their energy that then helps those with ADHD to better exercise self-control, according to experts.

Another reason swimming helps those with ADHD, including Michael Phelps, is that any activity, such as swimming, that focuses on one activity helps affected people to concentrate.

Whatever reason swimming may have helped Michael Phelps concentrate and achieve a goal, there is no doubt he was not always as successful in focusing, according to Internet reports. His third grade teacher, Mrs. Kines, can recall to this day that he had trouble focusing and sitting still. She wondered if he would ever be able to concentrate on an important goal. Michael’s mom, Debbie has recalled in Internet reports that although Michael was a good athlete, he was not a good student, largely because of his ADHD. She recalls that when he decided to concentrate only on swimming, not other sports, it helped him because the sport is so structured, and is concentrated on individuals. This is true even for team events in swimming competitions.

Experts also say that any activity, whether it is something like swimming or the martial arts, that helps those with ADHD exercise self-control is beneficial. Some may say Michael Phelps exercised a great deal of self-control in practicing so many hours each day for the Olympics.

Experts say there are other reasons swimming, or other activities that focus on one activity, might be beneficial for those with ADHD. They say the times when there is no activity in a sport like baseball, such as in between pitches, can be very frustrating to an ADHD affected individual. With swimming, however, someone is constantly active. They also say that in a sport like football or basketball, where an individual might have to do many things at once, an ADHD afflicted individual could be much more frustrated than in swimming, where a participant has to do only one thing.

Experts say that if a parent has a child with ADHD he should know what medicine someone needs before participating in a sport, like swimming, and see that he gets it. He should also discuss the situation with his child’s coach, so he can help. It also helps to post a schedule for the children with ADHD.

There are many things that can be beneficial to an ADHD affected individual, and swimming is one of them.

B. Conclusions

There is no absolute cure for asthma but swimming can help lessen/ ease the attacks because swimming strengthens the lungs and it teaches the person how to control his lungs better. Swimming is good for asthmatics because the water in which they swim in is assumed to be cleaner than the air they breathe; therefore in the water, they do not inhale the dust or whatever it is that irritates their lungs. Swimming strengthens the lungs to the point that the person does not get asthma attacks anymore. If he does, very mild, but the asthma will always remain there.

Back pains can occur when there is too much tension on the back, especially the lower part, or when the back is weak. Swimming is the right sport for this because it is really the only sport that can strengthen the back without putting any strain on it because when in the water, the person stays afloat in a flat position and no extra strain is exerted on the back, especially the lower part.

Females can very well benefit from swimming. Swimming strengthens abdominal and shoulder muscles, which are important for carrying a baby when pregnant. Along with the two mentioned muscles, swimming also helps the back muscles, with which post-mastectomy women carry their weight properly.

Swimming helps cerebral palsy in several ways. First, a patient who has cerebral palsy has impaired muscle coordination and because swimming is a well-balanced sport that uses all muscles in the body, swimming can help the muscle coordination that is impaired by cerebral palsy. Also, if the water in the pool is warm, muscle stiffness or pain can be relieved. Going back to the primary argument, swimming is the best for cerebral palsy because, although different types of physical therapy can be beneficial to cerebral palsy patients, swimming is safe because the patient has really no chances of getting hurt and injured since he is just in the water.

Sports in general are good for those with ADHD since they have tons and tons of excess energy, which they have to put to good use. Swimming is the sport for them because swimming is an individual sport, which requires only one activity per swimmer unlike team sports, which require their players to do more activities at once; this can frustrate a person with ADHD. Going back to what was mentioned earlier, that people with ADHD have tons of energy they have to use, it is possible that this fact could have helped Michael Phelps endure the seventeen races he had to swim during the Beijing games. He swam seventeen races in a span of only seven days, with some events less than an hour apart.

C. Recommendations

If the author can find a way to generalize, to focus on everyone rather than individuals, the statement would be much stronger.

The author could have discussed more about swimming being a non-contact sport, just to show really that swimming is a safe sport and is the ideal for fitness.

More comparisons with other sports would have been very useful in the paper because the statement says that swimming is the ideal sport for everyone. Since the benefit of the sport is not known to everybody then the author should have made a study on the comparison with other sports.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

V. Bibiliography

a)    http://www.healthcorral.com/backpain/how_swimming_helps_in_curing_back_pain.php

b)    http://www.mydr.com.au/asthma/asthma-can-swimming-help

c)    http://www.mamashealth.com/exercise/swimben.asp

d)    “Effect of intensive swimming training on lung volumes, airway resistances and on the maximal expiratory flow-volume relationship in prepubertal girls” by Daniel Courteix, Philippe Ober, Anne-Marie Lecoq, Patrick Guenon, Gunter Koch

e)    http://www.cerebralpalsysource.com/News_and_Articles/champion-swimmer/index.html

f)      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Susie_Maroney

g)    http://www.cerebralpalsysource.com/Treatment_and_Therapy/swimming/index.html

h)    http://helpingpsychology.com/swimming-and-those-with-adhd

i)      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amy_Van_Dyken

j)      http://www.spiritus-temporis.com/debbie-meyer/

k)    http://www.sfgate.com/sports/olympics96/profiles/grote.html

l)      http://www.usatoday.com/community/chat/0913hogshead.htm

 

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